Difference between revisions of "TU Wien:Einführung in Semantic Systems VU (Tjoa)/Possible Exam Questions"

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== What are three types of reasoning tasks that can be performed on ontologies? ==
 
== What are three types of reasoning tasks that can be performed on ontologies? ==
[SemSysL2, 19/20, p.49ff]
+
[SemSysL2, 19/20, pp.49 - 55]
  
 
== Define the notion of ​ Blank Nodes ​ in RDF and give one modelling example where they are useful. ==
 
== Define the notion of ​ Blank Nodes ​ in RDF and give one modelling example where they are useful. ==
 +
[SemSysL3, 19/20, p.31ff]
  
 
== What does the notion of ​ Reification ​ mean? How can reification be realized in RDF?  Give an example. ==
 
== What does the notion of ​ Reification ​ mean? How can reification be realized in RDF?  Give an example. ==
 +
[SemSysL3, 19/20, p.40ff]
  
 
== What are the three main knowledge representation languages used in the Semantic Web? Discuss how they differ in terms of their knowledge representation capabilities. ==
 
== What are the three main knowledge representation languages used in the Semantic Web? Discuss how they differ in terms of their knowledge representation capabilities. ==
 +
[SemSysL3, 19/20, p.xx] ??? Different OWL versions?
  
 
== Describe the Semantic Web Technology Stack by (1) identifying the main concepts and abstractions covered by the stack as well as (2) naming the concrete specifications that correspond to each of these abstractions. (It is sufficient to focus on those abstractions and solutions that were covered in the lecture). ==
 
== Describe the Semantic Web Technology Stack by (1) identifying the main concepts and abstractions covered by the stack as well as (2) naming the concrete specifications that correspond to each of these abstractions. (It is sufficient to focus on those abstractions and solutions that were covered in the lecture). ==
 +
[SemSysL3, 19/20, p.4ff]
  
== Describe the typical stages followed with the (Google) OpenRefine tool for creating RDF based data from tabular data. Name and briefly describe each stage. ==  
+
== Describe the typical stages followed with the (Google) OpenRefine tool for creating RDF based data from tabular data. Name and briefly describe each stage. ==
 +
[SemSysL4, 19/20, p.9ff] ???
  
 
== Describe the process of transforming a database into an RDF dataset by using R2RML. Additionally, describe the mandatory and optional components of an R2RML mapping definition. ==
 
== Describe the process of transforming a database into an RDF dataset by using R2RML. Additionally, describe the mandatory and optional components of an R2RML mapping definition. ==
 +
* Process [SemSysL4, 19/20, p.22ff]: ...
 +
* Definition [SemSysL4, 19/20, p.25]: ...
  
 
== Define the term “Semantic Annotation”. Provide also the formal model of a semantic annotation. ==
 
== Define the term “Semantic Annotation”. Provide also the formal model of a semantic annotation. ==
 +
[SemSysL4, 19/20, p.32ff]
  
 
== What is the typical structure of a SPARQL query? Name and briefly describe the role of each part of a SPARQL query. ==
 
== What is the typical structure of a SPARQL query? Name and briefly describe the role of each part of a SPARQL query. ==
 +
[SemSysL5, 19/20, p.7ff]
  
 
== What are the four query forms in SPARQL and what is their result type? ==
 
== What are the four query forms in SPARQL and what is their result type? ==
 +
[SemSysL5, 19/20, p.18ff]
  
 
== For two RDF entailment patterns of your choice (1) describe the pattern and (2) exemplify how querying is affected when reasoning in terms of that pattern in comparison to the case when no reasoning is enabled. ==
 
== For two RDF entailment patterns of your choice (1) describe the pattern and (2) exemplify how querying is affected when reasoning in terms of that pattern in comparison to the case when no reasoning is enabled. ==
 +
[SemSysL5, 19/20, p.53] ???
  
 
== Describe at least two architectural patterns for KG applications. ==
 
== Describe at least two architectural patterns for KG applications. ==
 +
[SemSysL6, 19/20, p.5]
  
 
== What is a re-publication component in the KG architecture? Why is it needed and what are the available options? ==
 
== What is a re-publication component in the KG architecture? Why is it needed and what are the available options? ==
 +
[SemSysL6, 19/20, p.9]
  
 
== How to perform data integration at schema and instance level in a KG application? ==
 
== How to perform data integration at schema and instance level in a KG application? ==
 +
[SemSysL6, 19/20, p.7]
  
 
== What are conceptual differences between RDF4J and Apache Jena? In what circumstances would you use each of them? ==
 
== What are conceptual differences between RDF4J and Apache Jena? In what circumstances would you use each of them? ==
 +
[SemSysL6, 19/20, p.41ff]
  
 
== What are the differences/mismatch between Object-Oriented Programming and Ontology Modeling ==
 
== What are the differences/mismatch between Object-Oriented Programming and Ontology Modeling ==
 +
[SemSysL6, 19/20, p.43]

Revision as of 12:11, 16 January 2020

This collection of question aims to support students during the preparation for the exam. Students are expected to provide answers based on the material discussed during the lectures and presented in the lecture slides. Additional information collected from third-party materials is encouraged but not mandatory. Please note that questions listed here might appear in a slightly modified form in the exam. Good luck with the preparation!

Contents

What is the “Semantic Web”? Refer to the definition given by Tim Berners-Lee in the Scientific American journal.

[SemSys1, 19/20, p.26]: “an extension of the current web (1) in which information is given well-defined meaning (2), better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation (3).”

Provide two of the definitions of a knowledge graph discussed during the lecture.

[SymSys1, 19/20, p.15]

Give examples of two companies that use knowledge graphs and explain how they make use of these structures as part of their use cases.

[SemSys1, 19/20, p.6ff]

What are the key enabling technologies for the semantic web?

[SemSys1, 19/20, p.28]

  • standard vocabularies (ontologies), captureing semantics
  • standard syntax: XML, RDF, RDF Schema, OWL
  • resources with attached meta-data

Define an ontology (use the definition of Studer from 1998).

[SemSysL2, 19/20, p.8]

  • Studer (1998): "Formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization".

Which are the three main categories of ontologies based on their expressivity?

[SemSysL2, 19/20, p.9] ???

What is a taxonomy? Provide a definition and an example.

[SemSysL2, 19/20, p.12f]

  • Taxonomy: a controlled vocabulary organized into a hierarchical structure.

Also: a hierarchical system of groups (p.12).

(Relation of taxonomy and ontology: [SemSysL2, 19/20, p.16])

What are the main elements of an ontology? Give a few examples for a domain of your choice.

[SemSysL2, 19/20, p.20] ???

  • Example: (Mechanics): [SemSysL2, 19/20, p.17ff]

What are the main stages of the ontology engineering methodology proposed by Noy & McGuinness? Enumerate the stages and explain each of them briefly.

[SemSysL2, 19/20, p.32ff]

  • Determine Scope
  • Consider Reuse
  • Enumerate Terms
  • Define Classes and Taxonomy
  • Define Properties
  • Define Constraints
  • Create Instances
  • Check for Anomalies

(slides pp.32 - 47 explain the details)

What is the “AAA Slogan”? Which two important assumptions for the Semantic Web Stem from this slogan? Explain each briefly.

  • [SemSysL2, 19/20, p.29]: On the Web “Anyone can say Anything about Any topic”: AAA Slogan
  • Nonunique Naming Assumption: ...
  • Open World Assumption: ...

Define and give an example for a universal restriction.

[SemSysL2, 19/20, p.42]

  • Universal restriction: ...

Define and give an example for an existential restriction.

[SemSysL2, 19/20, p.42]

  • Existential restriction: ...

Name and give examples of at least three property characteristics that can be specified in ontologies.

[SemSysL2, 19/20, p.43]

What are three types of reasoning tasks that can be performed on ontologies?

[SemSysL2, 19/20, pp.49 - 55]

Define the notion of ​ Blank Nodes ​ in RDF and give one modelling example where they are useful.

[SemSysL3, 19/20, p.31ff]

What does the notion of ​ Reification ​ mean? How can reification be realized in RDF? Give an example.

[SemSysL3, 19/20, p.40ff]

What are the three main knowledge representation languages used in the Semantic Web? Discuss how they differ in terms of their knowledge representation capabilities.

[SemSysL3, 19/20, p.xx] ??? Different OWL versions?

Describe the Semantic Web Technology Stack by (1) identifying the main concepts and abstractions covered by the stack as well as (2) naming the concrete specifications that correspond to each of these abstractions. (It is sufficient to focus on those abstractions and solutions that were covered in the lecture).

[SemSysL3, 19/20, p.4ff]

Describe the typical stages followed with the (Google) OpenRefine tool for creating RDF based data from tabular data. Name and briefly describe each stage.

[SemSysL4, 19/20, p.9ff] ???

Describe the process of transforming a database into an RDF dataset by using R2RML. Additionally, describe the mandatory and optional components of an R2RML mapping definition.

  • Process [SemSysL4, 19/20, p.22ff]: ...
  • Definition [SemSysL4, 19/20, p.25]: ...

Define the term “Semantic Annotation”. Provide also the formal model of a semantic annotation.

[SemSysL4, 19/20, p.32ff]

What is the typical structure of a SPARQL query? Name and briefly describe the role of each part of a SPARQL query.

[SemSysL5, 19/20, p.7ff]

What are the four query forms in SPARQL and what is their result type?

[SemSysL5, 19/20, p.18ff]

For two RDF entailment patterns of your choice (1) describe the pattern and (2) exemplify how querying is affected when reasoning in terms of that pattern in comparison to the case when no reasoning is enabled.

[SemSysL5, 19/20, p.53] ???

Describe at least two architectural patterns for KG applications.

[SemSysL6, 19/20, p.5]

What is a re-publication component in the KG architecture? Why is it needed and what are the available options?

[SemSysL6, 19/20, p.9]

How to perform data integration at schema and instance level in a KG application?

[SemSysL6, 19/20, p.7]

What are conceptual differences between RDF4J and Apache Jena? In what circumstances would you use each of them?

[SemSysL6, 19/20, p.41ff]

What are the differences/mismatch between Object-Oriented Programming and Ontology Modeling

[SemSysL6, 19/20, p.43]