Difference between revisions of "Uni Wien:Neurolinguistik VO (Reiterer)/Fragenkatalog SS18"

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==== American Aphasia Association ====
 
==== American Aphasia Association ====
 +
[[Datei:Uni Wien-Neurolinguistik VO (Reiterer)-Fragenkatalog SS18 - American Aphasia Association types of aphasia.png|900x900px]]<blockquote>'''<small>Global aphasia</small>'''</blockquote><blockquote><small>This is the most severe form of aphasia, and is applied to patients who can produce few recognizable words and understand little or no spoken language. Persons with Global Aphasia can neither read nor write. Global aphasia may often be seen immediately after the patient has suffered a stroke and it may rapidly improve if the damage has not been too extensive. However, with greater brain damage, severe and lasting disability may result.</small></blockquote><blockquote>'''<small>Broca's aphasia ('non-fluent aphasia')</small>'''</blockquote><blockquote><small>In this form of aphasia, speech output is severely reduced and is limited mainly to short utterances of less than four words. Vocabulary access is limited and the formation of sounds by persons with Broca's aphasia is often laborious and clumsy. The person may understand speech relatively well and be able to read, but be limited in writing. Broca's aphasia is often referred to as a 'non fluent aphasia' because of the halting and effortful quality of speech.</small></blockquote><blockquote>'''<small>Mixed non-fluent aphasia</small>'''</blockquote><blockquote><small>This term is applied to patients who have sparse and effortful speech, resembling severe Broca's aphasia. However, unlike persons with Broca's aphasia, they remain limited in their comprehension of speech and do not read or write beyond an elementary level.</small></blockquote><blockquote>'''<small>Wernicke's aphasia ('fluent aphasia')</small>'''</blockquote><blockquote><small>In this form of aphasia the ability to grasp the meaning of spoken words is chiefly impaired, while the ease of producing connected speech is not much affected. Therefore Wernicke's aphasia is referred to as a 'fluent aphasia.' However, speech is far from normal. Sentences do not hang together and irrelevant words intrude-sometimes to the point of jargon, in severe cases. Reading and writing are often severely impaired.</small></blockquote><blockquote>'''Anomic aphasia'''</blockquote><blockquote><small>This term is applied to persons who are left with a persistent inability to supply the words for the very things they want to talk about-particularly the significant nouns and verbs. As a result their speech, while fluent in grammatical form and output is full of vague circumlocutions and expressions of frustration. They understand speech well, and in most cases, read adequately. Difficulty finding words is as evident in writing as in speech.</small></blockquote><blockquote>'''<small>Primary progressive aphasia</small>'''</blockquote><blockquote><small>Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a neurological syndrome in which language capabilities become slowly and progressively impaired. Unlike other forms of aphasia that result from stroke or brain injury, PPA is caused by neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease or Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration. PPA results from deterioration of brain tissue important for speech and language. Although the first symptoms are problems with speech and language, other problems associated with the underlying disease, such as memory loss, often occur later.</small></blockquote><blockquote>'''<small>Other varieties</small>'''</blockquote><blockquote><small>In addition to the foregoing syndromes that are seen repeatedly by speech clinicians, there are many other possible combinations of deficits that do not exactly fit into these categories.Some of the components of a complex aphasia syndrome may also occur in isolation. This may be the case for disorders of reading (alexia) or disorders affecting both reading and writing (alexia and agraphia), following a stroke. Severe impairments of calculation often accompany aphasia, yet in some instances patients retain excellent calculation in spite of the loss of language.</small></blockquote>
  
 
== Brain imaging/brain investigation techniques ==
 
== Brain imaging/brain investigation techniques ==

Revision as of 15:43, 4 December 2019

Approximately 60+~ factual questions (no essay style necessary) about the most important basic concepts, scholars, inventors, techniques, disorders.... (concepts again detailed below), plus knowing what some important acronyms stand for, plus being able to graphically position some basic neuroanatomical landmarks in a schematic brain. Since the field of cognitive neuroscience nowadays uses a lot of acronyms, it is important to know some of them, so please look at the acronyms again. All in all, a good overview and not knowing every detail should be achieved.

The concepts according to their chronological occurrence during the lecture: You should be able to name always some important representatives of the following “concepts” or issues: aspire to remember 5-10, at least 3 of every kind.

Contents

Die 15 Fragen des Katalogs sind im Folgenden als Abschnittsüberschriften aufgeführt - bitte weiter ausfüllen und ausarbeiten:

Journals of Cognitive Neuroscience, especially Neurolinguistics

to be studied for the exam: "You should be able to name some of them, of course not all, maybe some 5."

typical journals in Neurolinguistics typical journals in Cognitive Neuroscience Impact Factor
Brain and Language (neurobiol. of lang.conference, NSL) Nature 38
NeuroImage Nature Neuroscience 15
Human Brain Mapping Nature Reviews Neuroscience 32
Journal of Neurolinguistics Science 32
International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17
Language, Cognition and Neuroscience Trends in Neurosciences 14
Aphasiology Neuron 16
Bilingualism: Language and Cognition Cortex 6
Mind, Brain and Education Cerebral Cortex 7
Frontiers in Language Sciences /Psychology Cognition 3
Psychological Bulletin 16
PloS Biology 13
PNAS 10
Current Opinion in Neurobiology 7
Journal of Neuroscience 7
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 4
Brain Research 3
Cognitive Brain Research 3

Scimago journal ranking in language & linguistics

The "neutral" database: PubMed

Some search engines for looking up publications in the field:

Some important organizations with annual conferences:

Basic tissue substances in the brain

outer to inner:

  • Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (in ventricle system)
  • Gray Matter (cell bodies in the cortex)
  • White Matter (myelinated nerve fibers)

Cytoarchitecture

to be studied for the exam: "E.g. Golgi, Brodmann, ..some important historic figures and what they achieved."

Cytoarchitecture (="cell architecture") refers to the cellular composition of brain tissue (see also histology)

Historic Figures

  • Camillo Golgi, (1843-1926): Nobel prize in medicine, 1906 with y Cajal
    • developed silver staining technique for visualizing nervous tissue in light microscopy ("Golgi's method")
  • Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934)
    • discovered axonal growth cone and demonstrated that neural network is contiguous, not continuous
  • Richard L. Heschl (1824-1881): University of Vienna
    • first to describe the transverse temporal gyrus (Heschl's gyri, also Heschl's convolutions) in the primary auditory cortext, where auditory information is processed
  • Franz Josef Gall
    • Caspar Spurzheim

Cell Types

to be studied for the exam: "Should be able to name some cell types"

  • Neurons: transmit messages (via dendrites, synapses, axons → electro-chemical signals); ca. 86 billion, each connected to up to 10,000 other neurons through 100-200 k synaptic connections per neuron, totaling up to 1 trillion).
    • by form
      • unipolar: only 1 "process" [~appendix]
      • bipolar: 2 processes: 1 axon, 1 dendrite
      • multipolar: 1 axon, 2+ dendrites
    • by function
      • afferent (sensory neurons): from organs to CNS/brain (central nervous system = ~brain + spinal chord)
      • efferent (motor neurons): from CNS to peripheral nervous system → effectors (cells that actively respond to a stimulus and effect some change, e.g. muscles, glands but also microglia in brain and spinal chord)
      • interneurons: connect within CNS
  • Glia ("glue"): supporting functions [think housekeepers]: maintain homeostasis (~steady state of physico-chemical conditions), form myelin, fixate, insulate, and protect neurons, support them with nutrients and oxygen, destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons
    • Macroglia
      • Astrocytes (astroglia): Regulate neurotransmitter concentrations; important for blood-brain barrier
      • Oligodendrocytes: (oligo = few, dendron = tree) enwrap axons → make up myelin sheaths
    • Microcytes (microglia): macrophages (type of white blood cell) which remove plaques, dead neurons, all types of foreign bodies [clean up and defend against threats]
  • other cell types
    • Pyramidal cells:
    • basket cells
    • Betz cells (large motor neurons)
    • Purkinje cells (large cells in cerebellum)

Neuroanatomy

Presentation of a "fresh dead brain"

Brain

  • ~ 1.5 kg
  • 86 billion neurons
    • each connected to up to 10,000 others
    • over 1,000 trillion (1 quadrillion) connections via synapses (up to a quadrillion according to the lecture slides, apparently quoted from this scantily sourced site)
  • accounts for 20 % of total glucose consumption (~400 kcal/day)
  • 20 % of total oxygen consumption

Systematics/taxonomy by:

  • morphological structure (shape) (e.g. amygdala)
  • evolutionary age (e.g. Neocortex, Archicortex, brain stem ("reptilian brain")
  • location (e.g. frontal lobe)
  • cell structure (cytoarchitecture, physiological function)
  • physiological & sensory function (e.g. primary audio cortex)
  • higher order (cognitive) function (e.g. peri-sylvian language network, default mode network, limbic system ("emotional circuit"), reward system ("pleasure loop)
  • name (e.g. Broca's area, sylvian fissure, Rolandic fissure)

Basic global structure

to be studied for the exam: "Parts of the brain and their most basic functions. At least one function per global brain part (e.g. thalamus, limbic system...)."

4 directions:

  • dorsal (superior): top side (towards the back [cp. quadripedal animals, where the back is on top/facing away from the ground; also, dorsal referring to the top side of the tongue (e.g. dorsal fricatives)])
  • ventral (inferior): bottom side ("bellywards" [cp. quadrupeds, abdomen is on underside])
  • rostral (frontal, anterior): front side ("beakwards")
  • caudal (posterior): back side ("tailwards")

Surrounding layers: Dura Mater (outer + inner), Arachnoid, subarachnoid space, Pia Mater

4 important parts: cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brain stem

Short overview with 3D images

  • Cerebrum (Großhirn, Telencephalon): left & right hemisphere;
    • Corpus callosum: Main fiber connection between hemispheres; largest white matter structure in the human brain, consisting of 200-300 million axonal projections
    • Cortex (Hirnrinde → outer layer of Cerebrum, consiting of gray matter) vs. subcortical areas (embedded within white matter → myelin-sheathed; composed of axons (nerve fibers))
    • Frontal Lobe: reasoning, motor skills, higher level cognition, and expressive language
      • Prefrontal Lobe
    • Parietal Lobe: tactile sensory information such as
      • Superior Parietal Lobe
      • Inferior Parietal Lobe
    • Occipital Lobe: primary visual cortex
    • Temporal Lobe: primary auditory cortex
      • Hippocampus: memories, learning
  • Cerebellum (Kleinhirn): 10 % of brain volume, 50 % of neurons
    • important for
      • motor control & coordination (gait & posture)
      • fine motor control (balance, motor learning)
      • learning, cognition, speech (tempo, pace [speech motor functions, rhythm])
    • structure
      • mid portion
      • Vermis cerebelli ("worm"):
      • cerebellar hemispheres
    • contains
      • arbor vitae:
      • folia:
      • Purkinje cells
  • Diencephalon (Zwischenhirn)
    • Thalamus: Very important regulative system! A bilateral complex of cell nuclei, which have fiber connections to the cerebrum. The Thalamus acts as a switchover point for most sensory pathways → every sensory system (except olfactory) has a its own thalamic nucleus, which relays sensori-motor signals to the cortex. The Thalamus regulates consciousness, sleep and alertness
    • Epithalamus
    • Subthalamus (globus pallidus (Pallidum), capsula interna)
    • Hypothalamus: regulates vegetative functions: blood pressure, temperature, circadian rhythm, sexuality, eating, drinking
  • Brain stem (Hirnstamm)
    • Medulla oblongata ("verlängertes Rückenmark") → ARAS (ascending reticulary formation): basic functions
      • sleep/wake system (through emitting serotonine, adrenaline, noradrenaline)
      • breathing, larynx, swallowing, coughing, vomiting [autonomous (involuntary) functions)]
    • Pons relay station for motor and sensory innvervation and connections between cerebellum & cerebrum (Kleinhirn & Großhirn)
    • Mesencephalon (mid brain): transition unit for sensory info from eye and ear to brain
      • substantia nigra: important role in reward system (produces neurotransmitters, esp. dopamine) and movement; Parkinson's disease
      • PAG (peri-aqueductal gray): part of endorphine system
  • Limbic system: Formation of memories, emotional life
    • Amygdalae: 2 almond shaped clusters within the temporal lobes, primary role in memory processing, decision-making, emotional responses (fear, anxiety, aggression)

Gyri & Sulci (fissures)

to be studied for the exam: "Especially those related to language processing"

Sulci

  • Sulcus Centralis = Fissura Rolandi (rolandic fissure) (abbrev.: cs)
  • Sulcus lateralis = Fissura Sylvii (sylvian fissure)
  • ifs: Inferior Frontal Sulcus
  • ips: Intraparietal Sulcus
  • sts: Superior Temporal Sulcus

Gyri

  • Heschl's Gyrus (BA 41, 42)
    • located in Primary & Secondary Auditory cortex at Sylvian Fissure, in front of (and seperate from) the Planum Temporale
  • Planum Temporale (BA 22)
  • Superior Temporal Gyrus (STG) (BA 22, 41, 42)
  • Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG)
  • Angular Gyrus (BA 39)
  • Supramarginal Gyrus (BA 40)
  • Inferior Frontal Grus (BA 44, 45)
  • Inferior Parietal Lobe (IPL)

Brodmann Areas

to be studied for the exam: "The most important ones, here some 10."

3 parcellation approaches:

  1. Functional: Cyto-architecture and myelo-architectonic structure
  2. Receptor-architectonic structure (receptor binding, density of neurotransmitters)
  3. Connectivity-based parcellation approach
BA # Name Notes short description (fill in from slides & other sources)
important areas

(speech/language)

39 angular gyrus IPL
40 supramarginal gyrus IPL
41 Heschl's gyrus Primary Auditory Cortex
42/22 planum temporale/secondary auditory areas
22, 21, 42 superior temporal gyrus
22 Wernicke area perception of speech: hearing, listening, receiving, understanding; sensoric aspects
BROCA Syntax production of speech: speaking, articulation; motoric aspects
44, 45, 47 inferior frontal gyrus
44 pars opercularis
45 pars triangularis
47 pars orbitalis
important areas

(general)

04 (primary) motor cortex
01, 02, 03 somatosensory cortex
6 premotor cortex + SMA (supplementary motor area) neurons of SMA project directly to the spinal cord
17 primary visual area Cuneus
18 secondary visual area
19 tertiary visual area
46 dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
23 cortex cingularis posterior ("cingulum")
21 middle temporal area of cortex
07 superior parietal lobule+precuneus
10 anterior/fronto-polar prefrontal cortex
08 frontal eye fields
09 frontal cortex
13 insular cortex interoceptive awareness, expressive (Broca's) aphasia

Primary sensory systems

to be studied for the exam: "Vision, audition, motor control (homunculus), “-topy”-principles (e.g. tonotopy)"

Vision

PLEASE FILL IN

Audition

PLEASE FILL IN

Motor Control

PLEASE FILL IN

"-topy"-principles

Topologically represented, contiguous processing areas in the brain

  • Tonotopy: Frequency-specific sound-processing areas → Tones close to each other in terms of frequency are represented in topologically neighbouring regions in the brain (esp. Heschl's gyrus).
  • Retinotopy: Retinal mapping, i.e. mapping from retinal areas to brain areas. The mapping is not strictly contiguous, i.e. upper half of retina is processed seperate in a region seperate from the one processing the lower half of the retina/visual field
  • Somatotopy: Point-for-point correspondence of an area of the body to a specific point of the brain, esp. somatosensory complex
  • Syntactotopy? To what extent can syntactic processing be mapped to specific brain areas?

Differences between the hemispheres (lateralization)

to be studied for the exam: "Structural[] and functional[] [differences between hemispheres]."

Visual and somatosensory information is predominantly processed in the hemisphere opposite the originating side of the body and visual field.

Bouillaud 1825, Gall 1835, M. Dax 1836

Broca 1861: Speech (and its loss: "aphemia") is connected to the third convolution of the superior part of the left frontal lobe

Subcortical structures

to be studied for the exam: "Know and name some subcortical structures"

  • Thalamus
  • Tectum
  • Superior & Inferior Colliculus
  • Capsula Interna
  • Claustrum
  • Basal Nuclei/Ganglia (subkortikale Kerne): A group of large nuclei that partially surround the thalamus, important for motor control
    • Nucleaus Caudatus (speech)
      • + Putamen = Striatum
    • Putamen (speech)
    • Globus Pallidus (Pallidum)
  • Nucleus accumbens
  • Substantia Nigra
  • Nucleus Subthalamicus
  • Amygdala ("Mandelkern"), part of limbic system
    • motor movement
  • Cingulate Cortex
  • Corpus Callosum
  • Fornix
  • Olfactory Bulb
  • Mammillary body
  • Massa Intermedia
  • Fornix

Limbic System

supports a variety of functions incl. motor, behavior, motivation, long-term memory, olfaction; most of emotional life and important for formation of memories

produces endorphines

  • Hippocampus
  • Gyrus Cinguli
  • Basal Ganglia
  • Amygdalae: motor movement (basal ganglia)
  • Nucleus Accumbens
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamic nuclei
  • Fornix

Fiber tracts (fasciculi, white matter fibers)

to be studied for the exam: "Know some fiber tracts (fasciculi) important for language and some general ones."

  • Fasciculus Arcuatus
  • 3 segments: long, anterior, posterior

Historical figures in neurolinguistics

to be studied for the exam: "E.g. Wernicke, Dax, Lichtheim, Gall... You should also relate their biggest discoveries / theories or models."

  • Carl Wernicke (1848-1905)
    • 68 pp. monograph "The Aphasic Symptom Complex" in 1874
    • wanted to anchor the functional architecture for speech in neural architecture
    • wrote "Lehrbuch der Gehirnkrankheiten" at Charitè Berlin
    • believed psychiatric illnesses can be based on neurological problems → psychoses can be reversible
    • theory of projection, topography of sensory and motor pathways into and out of the brain
  • Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880), son-in-law of Bouillaud (→ 500 francs bet)
    • introduced term "limbic system"
    • concluded from cases with lesion of left frontal lobe and SLI that language is localized in the left hemisphere
      • article published in the same year (1865) as Gustave Dax' article with the same conclusion → Dax accused him of plagiarism
      • popularized localism (vs. equipotentialism), which led to research into lateralization
    • Broca's area was named by Ogle in 1867
  • Korbinian Brodmann (1858-1918)
    • dt. Neuroanatom und Psychiater
    • von Alois Alzheimer zur Neurologie ermutigt
    • famous for distinguishing 52 regions of the cortex based on their cytoarchitecture, the Brodmann areas
    • published early brain atlases (based on his eponymous areas)
    • worked on and findings about insomnia, sleep centers & regulation; intelligence, expertise & exceptional brains
  • Camillo Golgi (Nobel prize in medicine, 1906 with y Cajal)
    • developed silver staining technique for visualizing nervous tissue in light microscopy ("Golgi's method")
  • Santiago Ramón y Cajal
    • discovered axonal growth cone and demonstrated that neural network is contiguous, not continuous
  • Marc Dax (1770-1837) & his son Gustave Dax (1815-1874), French physicians
    • Marc Dax accumulated statistics about 40+ hemiplegic patients (paralysis) with loss of word memory
      • loss of speech only in patients with right hemiplegia (left hemisphere!)
    • Gustave Dax: 370 cases of hemiplegia
      • assumed medial left lobe must be "the seat of articulated speech" but his paper was rejected by the French Academy of Science because they regarded it as mere phrenology, hence pseudoscience
  • Lichtheim
  • Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud (1796-1881) established the French phrenological society ("phrenology without bumpy organs or skull diagnostics")
    • hypothesized that anterior lobes are the organs of language, based on many case studies/autopsies
  • Franz Josef Gall (1785-1828)
    • leader in brain autopsies
    • attempted to empirically localize cognitive functions and emotions
    • assumed hierarchical organization of 27 intellecutal faculties and corresponding organs in the brain
      • "knowing faculties": the senses
      • "reflecting faculties": language, "number"
      • music, calculation orientation, philological faculty
      • innate but not inheritable
      • symmetric/bilateral (Bichat's law of symmetry dominant during that time)
      • size of mental organs corresponding to ability
        • good memorization in people with "big, salient eyes" → word organ must be behind eyes
        • phrenology was influential during his time
      • language localized in frontal brain
    • Caspar Spurzheim (1776-1832): phrenology, physiognomy
  • Pierre Flourens (1794-1867): fiercest critic of Gall and other phrenologists
    • rejected idea of hemispheres containing "mental organs"
  • Economo
  • Jean Talairach
    • Neurosurgeon
    • developed an 'atlas' of the human brain (Talairach coordinates, Talairach space) with anterior and posterior commissure as reference points to normalize over different specimens of human brains, the first such atlas to enable localization of brain structures (before invasive surgery) regardless of individual anatomical differences (now replaced by e.g. MNI coordinate system
  • Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934)
    • discovered axonal growth cone and demonstrated that neural network is contiguous, not continuous
  • Richard Ladislaus Heschl (1824-1881): University of Vienna
    • first to describe the transverse temporal gyrus (Heschl's gyri, also Heschl's convolutions) in the primary auditory cortext, where auditory information is processed
  • Hippocrates
  • Herophilus
  • Plato (4. century BC)
    • first attempts to localize "abilities of the soul" in parts of the brain
  • Galen (4. century BC)
    • doctor for Roman gladiators
    • further development of localization attempt → abilities mapped to ventricles
  • Gainiero (15. century): assumed memory localized in 4th ventricle following observation of memory disturbances after damage
  • Vesalius (16. century)
    • renaissance surgeon, found of modern anatomy
    • criticized ventricle theory, tried to localize cognition in soft substance of the brain, stressed importance of brain volume
  • Descartes (17. century)
    • Dualism: Mind/Soul is distinct from body
      • seated in pineal gland "Epiphyse, Zirbeldrüse, Melatonin), where mind and body interact
  • Gesner (18. century)
    • wrote monograph on "speech amnesia"
      • 6 case studies
      • speech disorders as type of memory disorders, caused by weak connections between brain parts (connectivity!)

Current important neuroanatomists:

  • Karl Zilles (Forschungszentrum Jülich)
  • Katrin Amunts (Forschungszentrum Jülich)
  • Michael Petrides (McGill-U Montreal)

Aaphasia

to be studied for the exam: "Know some types of aphasia"

Term "aphasia" coined by Armand Trousseau in 1864

1) Acquired language disorders

  • Aphasia
  • Apraxia
  • Agraphia

2) Developmental speech & language disorders

  • Dyslexia
  • Developmental Apraxia
  • Stuttering

Baginsky Diagrams

Display the functional architecture of speech to distinguish aphasic syndromes

Optical input, speech input & output, branching outwards from (and inwards to) a central "main conceptual center"(e.g. acoustic nerve → centre for acoustic perception → centre for sound memory → main conceptual center)

Neither peripheral parts (speech musculature, optical and acoustic nerve) nor conceptual center are afflicted in aphasia. The conceptual center is unharmed [hence specific language impairment]. Aphasias arise from lesions in language-functional areas between conceptual centre and periphery.

Broca's Aphasia (expressive aphasia) (BA 44, 45)

Concerns production of speech, articulation; the motor aspects

  • Lesions in the left inferior frontal region (Broca’s area), head of caudate nucleus, thalamus, etc.
  • Nonfluent, labored, and hesitant speech (articulation)
  • Most also lose the ability to name persons or subjects (anomia)
  • Can utter automatic or overlearned speech (set phrases, songs)
  • Have difficulty with function (the, in, about) vs content words (verbs, nouns, adjectives) (agrammatism)
  • Comprehension relatively intact when other cues available (The man swat the mosquito vs the horse kicks the cow)
  • Most also have partial paralysis of one side of the body (hemiplegia)
  • If extensive, not much recovery over time

Wernicke's core classification: 5 aphasias

I) Disruption of acoustic nerve (a) causes deafness → "deaf-muteness"
II) Disruption in sensory speech centre (a1) ("Wernicke's area")
  • causes inability to understand or repeat speech although patient is not deaf
  • patients not hemiplegic
III) Disruption of connection from Wernicke's (a1) to Broca's area (b) (across Sylvian fissure, through insula)
  • patients can understand but not immediately repeat speech because sound-images cannot activate corresponding articulation image
  • patients can speak but disruption of monitoring of speech output
    • paraphasia": replacing words with meaning- or sound-related words; patients do not automatically notice this but can become aware of it
    • agraphia: inability to write because processing of word-sound images disrupted [presumably only applicable to phonographic writing systems/aspects?]
    • usually also alexia (but whole word recognition can bridge the processing gap (sound-image → word recognition))
  • right-sided hemiplegia [because of damage to insula?]
IV) Lesion in speech movement centre (b)
  • patient mostly mute
  • Wernicke also called it "Broca's aphasia"
  • often also agraphia [presumably regardless of phonographic vs ideographic]
V) Disruption of connection from speech movement centre (b) to oblongata (b1)
  • difficult to distinguish from IV)
  • motor aphasia (pure case)
    • pure cases are rare because speech motor nerves so close to other motor nerves → only slightly different to alalia, paralysis of speech muscles [presumably rare that aphasic but able to, e.g., chew?]

Wernicke area/aphasia (BA 22) [corresponds to II) and III) in Wernicke's classification?]

Concerns perception of speech, hearing, listening, understanding; the sensoric aspects

  • lesions in posterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus, extending to adjacent parietal cortex
  • unable to understand what they read or hear (poor comprehension)
  • unaware of their deficit
  • fluent but meaningless speech
  • can use function but not content words
  • contains many paraphasias
    • “girl”-“curl”, “bread”-“cake”
  • syntactically correct but empty sentences
  • cannot repeat words or sentences
  • usually no partial paralysis

The Wernicke-Lichtheim model

  • 7 distinct aphasic syndromes (Wernicke's 5 + 2 transcortical aphasias)
  • single case approach
  • in vivo approach

Lichtheim House

A Lichtheim house
  • B = conceptual centre
  • M = centre for motor images (Broca)
  • A = centre for auditory word images (Wernicke)
  • m = motor impulses of speech organs (periphery)
  • a = auditory input (nerve, periphery)
  • O = optical representation centre for letters
  • E = centre for representation and innervation for writing

This is a functional model. Both Lichtheim and Wernicke warned against attempts to localize B, O and E in a single locaction!

I) Transcortical sensory aphasia (A - B)
  • Loss of
    • understanding of spoken language (auditory words have lost their connections with concepts)
    • understanding of written language (the silent reading path O-A-B is also interrupted because involved in A – B)
  • Preservation of
    • volitional speech (B-M-m intact)
    • volitional writing (B-M-A-E intact)
    • repeating words (a-A-M-m)
    • reading aloud (O-A-M-m)
    • writing to dictation (a-A-E).
II) Transcortical motor aphasia (M - B)
  • Loss of
    • volitional (willful) speech (the concept (B) does not connect to the word movement representation in M)
    • volitional writing (B-M-A-E is interrupted)
  • Preservation of
    • Understanding of spoken language (a-A-B)
    • understanding of written language (O-A-B)
    • repeating spoken words
    • copying words
    • writing to dictation (a-A-E)
    • reading aloud (O-A-M-m)

Wernicke's proposed classification based on Wernicke-Lichtheim model

  1. (Cortical) Motor Aphasia (Broca) → (M)
  2. (Cortical) Sensory Aphasia (Wernicke) → (A)
  3. Conduction aphasia (arcuate) → (A-M)
  4. Transcortical motor aphasia → (M-B)
  5. Transcortical sensory aphasia → (A-B)
  6. Pure motor aphasia (aphemia, anarthria) → (m)
  7. Pure verbal (word) deafness → (a)
  8. Total aphasia (global) → all peri-sylvian cortex
  9. Amnestic aphasia (anomic, mild) → no location, B?, ???

This classification has survived til modern times but its shortcomings has led to newer models

Newer models

American Aphasia Association

Uni Wien-Neurolinguistik VO (Reiterer)-Fragenkatalog SS18 - American Aphasia Association types of aphasia.png

Global aphasia

This is the most severe form of aphasia, and is applied to patients who can produce few recognizable words and understand little or no spoken language. Persons with Global Aphasia can neither read nor write. Global aphasia may often be seen immediately after the patient has suffered a stroke and it may rapidly improve if the damage has not been too extensive. However, with greater brain damage, severe and lasting disability may result.

Broca's aphasia ('non-fluent aphasia')

In this form of aphasia, speech output is severely reduced and is limited mainly to short utterances of less than four words. Vocabulary access is limited and the formation of sounds by persons with Broca's aphasia is often laborious and clumsy. The person may understand speech relatively well and be able to read, but be limited in writing. Broca's aphasia is often referred to as a 'non fluent aphasia' because of the halting and effortful quality of speech.

Mixed non-fluent aphasia

This term is applied to patients who have sparse and effortful speech, resembling severe Broca's aphasia. However, unlike persons with Broca's aphasia, they remain limited in their comprehension of speech and do not read or write beyond an elementary level.

Wernicke's aphasia ('fluent aphasia')

In this form of aphasia the ability to grasp the meaning of spoken words is chiefly impaired, while the ease of producing connected speech is not much affected. Therefore Wernicke's aphasia is referred to as a 'fluent aphasia.' However, speech is far from normal. Sentences do not hang together and irrelevant words intrude-sometimes to the point of jargon, in severe cases. Reading and writing are often severely impaired.

Anomic aphasia

This term is applied to persons who are left with a persistent inability to supply the words for the very things they want to talk about-particularly the significant nouns and verbs. As a result their speech, while fluent in grammatical form and output is full of vague circumlocutions and expressions of frustration. They understand speech well, and in most cases, read adequately. Difficulty finding words is as evident in writing as in speech.

Primary progressive aphasia

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a neurological syndrome in which language capabilities become slowly and progressively impaired. Unlike other forms of aphasia that result from stroke or brain injury, PPA is caused by neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease or Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration. PPA results from deterioration of brain tissue important for speech and language. Although the first symptoms are problems with speech and language, other problems associated with the underlying disease, such as memory loss, often occur later.

Other varieties

In addition to the foregoing syndromes that are seen repeatedly by speech clinicians, there are many other possible combinations of deficits that do not exactly fit into these categories.Some of the components of a complex aphasia syndrome may also occur in isolation. This may be the case for disorders of reading (alexia) or disorders affecting both reading and writing (alexia and agraphia), following a stroke. Severe impairments of calculation often accompany aphasia, yet in some instances patients retain excellent calculation in spite of the loss of language.

Brain imaging/brain investigation techniques

to be studied for the exam: "Know the basic features about the brain imaging/brain investigation techniques and their advantages / disadvantages (here at least 2), but the very prominent imaging methods (MR-fMRI, DTI, and EEG/ERP/frequency bands) should be learned in more detail."

Methods by type of imaging:

1) Electro-physiological

  • EEG (electroencephalography)
  • Single unit (single electrodes)
  • TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation)

2) Hemodynamic imaging

  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
    • fMRI (functional MRI)
    • sMRI
  • PET (positron emission tomography)

3) Optical imaging

  • NIRS (near-infrared spectroscopy)
  • DTI (fiber tracking)
  • ERP
  • TdCS
  • MEG (magnetoencephalography)
  • ELAN
  • Hyperscanning
  • synchronization
  • P300

Static vs. dynamic:

1) static: anatomy/structure

2) dynamic: functional → visualize processes

"Outcome" (trade-off btw. temporal and spatial resolution)

  • functional imaging methods require sufficient temporal resolution
  • focus on anatomy → emphasis on spatial resolution

Neurolinguistic processing models

to be studied for the exam: "Know at least some neurolinguistic processing models and the names most prominently attached to them."

Miscellaneous/glossary

  • Adrenaline
  • amygdala: "Mandelkern"
  • angular:
  • arbor vitae:
  • archicortex:
  • astrocytes: Regulate neurotransmitter concentrations; important for blood-brain barrier
  • auditory cortex:
  • axon:
  • basket cells:
  • Bereitschaftspotenzial: Neuro-electric potential due to activity in motor cortex and SMA prior to volitional movement
  • Betz cells: large motor neurons)
  • calcarine:
  • caudal: "beak-wards" = posterior
  • caudate:
  • Cerebellum:
  • Cerebrum:
  • cingulate:
  • claustrum:
  • cortex:
  • cuneus:
  • cytoarchitecture: = "cell architecture", refers to the cellular composition of brain tissue (see also histology); histology (micro-anatomy): science of slicing and staining brain slices (credited to Viennese psychiatrist Theodor Meynert)
  • default mode network
  • dendrite
  • Diencephalon
  • dorsal (superior): top side
  • dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex
  • endorphine (system)
  • Epithalamus
  • Fissure/Fissura
  • folia
  • frontal eye field
  • Frontal lobe
  • genu
  • gray matter
  • Gyrus
  • Gyrus Cinguli/Cingulate Cortex: Attention, impulse, drive, motoric processing, emotions, mimicry, gesture…
  • Hypothalamus
  • Inferior
  • limbic system
  • marginal
  • Medial Gyri: Below the surface gyri in the cortex → only visible in cross-section visualizations; esp. Gyrus Cinguli in Cingulate Cortex
  • Medulla oblongata
  • Mesencephalon
  • microcytes (microglia)       
  • myelin
  • myelin sheath
  • neocortex
  • neuron                               
  • Noradrenaline
  • Occipital lobe
  • oligodendrocytes                (oligo = few, dendron = tree) enwrap axons → myelin sheath
  • PAG (peri-aqueductal gray)        part of endorphine system
  • parietal
  • Parietal lobe
  • peri-sylvian language network
  • phrenology: deriving mental faculties and character traits from the shape of someone's skull
  • planum temporale
  • pons                                 
  • posterior parietal assocation cortex
  • posterior parietal cortex
  • prefrontal cortex
  • Prefrontal lobe
  • premotor cortex
  • primary motor cortex
  • primary sematosensory cortex
  • process (of a neuron )            appendix (unipolar = 1 "process" (appendix), bipolar = 2 appendices: 1 axon, 1 dendrite, multipolar = ...
  • Purkinje cells
  • Purkinje cells (large cells in cerebellum)
  • Pyramidal cells
  • ramus
  • reward system
  • rostral (frontal, anterior)
  • rostrum
  • Serotonine
  • SMA (supplementary motor area/cortex)
  • soma
  • somatosensory cortex
  • splenium
  • substantia nigra
  • Subthalamus
  • Sulcus
  • Superior
  • supramarginal
  • synapsis
  • Temporal lobe
  • Thalamus
  • Thalamus
  • ventral (inferior): bottom side
  • ventricle: "cavity"
  • visual cortex
  • white matter